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The Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) is a world summit, aimed at preventing nuclear terrorism around the globe. The first summit was held in Washington, D.C., United States, in 2010. The goal of the NSS is to address concerns about fissile material falling into the wrong hands at a head-of-state level. It includes :-

Minimizing the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU),

Bolstering security at nuclear facilities through enhanced national regulations and implementation of best practices,

Enhanced membership in international instruments and organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA),

 Instituting measures to detect and prevent illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials, and

 Centres of Excellence, build capacity, develop technology and coordinate assistance on nuclear Security.

Takeaway from NSS 2016 Summit:

India made contribution of $1 million to the IAEA nuclear security fund. Similar contribution was also made in 2013.

India’s national  plan includes development and deployment of technology to deter and defend against nuclear terrorism. These include physical and cyber barriers, technological approaches, setting up a facility for medical grade ‘Moly-99’ using low enriched Uranium and using vitrified forms of vulnerable radioisotops such as ceasium 137.

India will continue to accord a high national priority to nuclear security through strong institutional framework, independent regulatory agency and trained and specialized manpower.

Global terrorism has evolved over time and terrorists are using modern technology and devices while national and international efforts to counter them have become outdated and rooted in past. Terrorism is globally networked. But, we still act only nationally to counter this threat

Contemporary features of terrorism:

One,Today’s terrorism uses extreme violence as theatre.

Two,We are no longer looking for a man in a cave, but  we are hunting for the terrorist in a city with computer or a smart phone.

Three,State actors working with nuclear traffickers and terrorists present greater risk

Without prevention and prosecution of acts of terrorism there could be no deterrence against nuclear terrorism.

Limitations of the NSS process:

As NSS covers nuclear material only for non-military purposes, 83% of the nuclear material falls outside its ambit.

Despite its intent, the NSS has also not been able to amend the IAEA’s convention on nuclear safety.

The fact that there is no legally binding outcome at the end of six years of NSS process is its major drawback. The NSS process has instead focused on asking countries to tighten their national laws, rules and capabilities on nuclear security. This has meant that military facilities are treated as national responsibilities and dealt as per international obligations.

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